Sunday, May 6, 2012

Selected Plants of the Galápagos Islands

The fifty or so plants discussed in this post are some of plants we saw on a seven day trip to the Galápagos in late December 2011 and early January 2012. We were on a tour sponsored by Ecuador Adventure. The itinerary of our trip was:
  • two nights in Quito (capital of Ecuador); our thoughts on Quito are discussed in this post.
  • two nights in Puerto Baquerizo Moreno (San Cristóbal Island)
  • two nights in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island)
  • two nights in Puerto Ayora (Santa Cruz Island).
  • two nights in Quito
Side Note: If you are interested in a trip to the Galápagos or other parts of Ecuador, we highly recommend working with Columbus Travel (Ecuador). The support we had through the agent we worked with (Christian) was first class. Everyone on our tour used different travel agents that connect travelers up with the folks at Ecuador Adventure. Comparing notes with our fellow travelers, we found that as our travel agent, Columbus Travel, was heads above the other agencies. We had all the information we needed to know what we were doing and when. On the ground in Ecuador, Columbus Travel arranged a driver to take us back and forth to the airport, which was much appreciated. They also hooked us up with a very nice hotel in Quito, La Casona de la Ronda. In general, we recommend you work these folks!

Back to the plants. By the nature of the tour, the plants shown here are easily viewed in the areas to which most tourists to the islands have ready access. Out of respect for the environment we didn’t go off any marked trails or wander too far from the eyes of our guides. Many plants, especially introduced ones, can be seen on more that one island. Others, in particular endemics, are found only on one island. In another post we discussed references we used to help make our identifications. Furthermore, we solicited input from the Charles Darwin Foundation on some plants we could not identify and they were very helpful. Consider a donation to them continue their work in the islands.

References used below:
  • [cdf] = Charles Darwin Foundation Galápagos Species Checklist
    [Bungartz, F., Herrera, H.W., Jaramillo, P., Tirado, N., Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Ruiz, D., Guézou, A. & Ziemmeck, F. (eds.) (2009). Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos: .]
  • [CRC] = CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names
  • [dg] = Dave’s Garden, Botanary
  • [ckm] = Flowering Plants of the Galápagos by Conley K. McMullen, see this post for more information. This is a good reference for common names.
  • [ref] = general reference
For many of the plants, we call out the etymologies of the binomial names that we find interesting. Any errors are our own. Where we are out on a limb (ha!) or making an educated guess we use the weasel words “likely”, “probably”, “possibly”, or we turn a statement into a question.

Common Name Matazarno
Local Name Matazarno
Binomial Name Piscidia carthagenensis
Family Fabaceae
Notes Generic name from the Latin piscis for “fish” and caedo “to kill, destroy or cut down, slaughter” referring to the roots that yield a fish poison. [CRC]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1: Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, near the National Park Interpretation Center, San Cristóbal Island.
Photo 2: Trail to Tortuga Bay, Santa Cruz Island.

Piscidia carthagenensis
(photo 1 left, photo 2 right)

Piscidia carthagenensisPiscidia carthagenensis


Common Name Galápagos Cotton
Local Name Algodón
Binomial Name Gossypium darwinii
Family Malvaceae
Notes Generic name is from ?
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1: San Cristóbal
Photo 2: Santa Cruz

Gossypium darwinii (photo 1 left, photo 2 right)
Gossypium darwiniiGossypium darwinii


Common Name Scalesia Helleri
Local Name bonsai de Galápagos
Binomial Name Scalesia helleri
Family Asteraceae
Notes For more on the generic name, see Binomen Art - Scalesia.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Puerto Ayora town center, Santa Cruz.

Scalesia helleri
Scalesia helleriScalesia helleri

Common Name Waltheria
Local Name
Binomial Name Waltheria ovata
Family Malvaceae
Notes Generic name after German botanist, Augustin Friedrich Walther (1688 - 1746).
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1: Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, near the Interpretation Center, San Cristóbal.
Photo 2: Tortuga Bay Trail, Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz.

Waltheria ovata (photo 1 left, photo 2 right)
Waltheria ovataWaltheria ovata

Common Name Yellow Cordia
Local Name Muyuyu
Binomial Name Cordia lutea
Family Boraginaceae
Notes Widespread.
Status Native [cdf].
Location Photo 1, 2, 3: Puerto Villamil, Isabela.
Photo 4: Tortuga Bay Trail, Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz.

Cordia lutea (photo 1, 2)
Cordia luteaCordia lutea Cordia lutea (photo 3 left, photo 4 right)
Cordia luteaCordia lutea

Common Name Darwin’s Daisy
Local Name Lecocarpus de Darwin
Binomial Name Lecocarpus darwinii
Family Asteraceae
Notes Similar to L. pinnatifidus (Floreana Daisy) but found only on San Cristóbal.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: San Cristóbal, Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.

Lecocarpus darwinii
Lecocarpus darwiniiLecocarpus darwinii

Common Name Poison Apple
Local Name Manchineel, manzanillo
Binomial Name Hippomane mancinella
Family Euphorbiaceae
Notes Generic name has origins in both Greek and Latin words having to do an herb that drives horses mad, poisons the, or brings them in-heat.
The specific epithet is a latinized form of manzanilla, the diminutive of manzana (the Spanish name for apple). [dg]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Tortoise breeding center, Puerto Villamil, Santa Cruz.

Hippomane mancinella
Hippomane mancinellaHippomane mancinella

Common Name White-haired Tournefortia
Local Name Lengua de Ternera (“Calf’s tongue”)
Binomial Name Tournefortia pubescens
Family Boraginaceae
Notes Generic name after French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656 - 1708). [CRC]
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Puerto Baquerizo Moreno, San Cristóbal

Tournefortia pubescens
Tournefortia pubescens

Common Name Red-haired Tournefortia
Local Name Palito Negro
Binomial Name Tournefortia rufo-sericea
Family Boraginaceae
Notes Generic name after French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656 - 1708). [CRC]
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Sierra Negra Trail, Isabela Island.

Tournefortia rufo-sericea
Tournefortia rufo-sericeaTournefortia rufo-sericea

Common Name Glorybower
Local Name
Binomial Name Clerodendrum molle var. molle
Family Verbenaceae
Notes Generic name from the Greek kleros “chance, lot, fate” and dendron “tree” and probably referring to the doubtful and variable medicinal properties in some species. The specific epithet, molle, means soft.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo: Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island near the tortoise breeding center.

Clerodendrum molle var. molle
Clerodendrum molle var. molle


Common Name Beach Morning Glory, Goat’s Foot
Local Name Bejuca de Arena, Flor de Mañana
Binomial Name Ipomoea pes-caprae
Family Convolvulaceae
Notes Generic name from Greek ips, pios “bindweed, or a kind of worm or beetle that eats vines” and homoios, homios “resembling, similar to,” referring to the habit, or to long trailing stems or to similarities this genus has with Convolvus. [CRC]
The specific epithet means “goats-foot” referring to leaf shape.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Puerto Villamil

Ipomoea pes-caprae
Ipomoea pes-capraeIpomoea pes-caprae

Common Name Galápagos Passion Flower
Local Name Vedoca
Binomial Name Passiflora foetida var. galapensis
Family Passifloraceae
Notes Generic name from the Latin passio, inis meaning “passion” and flos, floris meaning a “flower” and referring to the flowers that symbolize the passion and crucifixion of Jesus Christ. [CRC]
The specific epithet foetida means bad-smelling; stinking.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2, 3: Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island near the Hotel Sol.

Passiflora foetida var. galapensis

Passiflora foetida var. galapensisPassiflora foetida var. galapensis Passiflora foetida var. galapensis


Common Name Hedgehog Gourd, Teasel Gourd, Tiger’s Egg
Local Name Huevo de Tigre
Binomial Name Cucumis dipsaceus
Family Cucurbitaceae
Notes The generic name has origins in Latin, Akkadian, Greek, and Hebrew. For example, for Latin cucumis and meris mean “cucumber” and “melon”, respectively. The specific eipthet, dipsaceus, means resembling teasel, Dipsacus.
Status Introduced [cdf]
Location Photo 1: Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island.
Photo 2: Tortuga Bay Trail, Santa Cruz Island.

Cucumis dipsaceus (photo 1 left, photo 2 right)
Cucumis dipsaceus Cucumis dipsaceus


Common Name Galápagos Clubleaf
Local Name
Binomial Name Nolana galapagensis
Family Solanaceae or Nolanaceae?
Notes Generic name from the Latin nola meaning small bell referring to the flower or leaf? [CRC]
Habitats.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2, 3: Isolete Tintoreras, Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island.

Nolana galapagensis
Nolana galapagensis Nolana galapagensis Nolana galapagensis


Common Name Beach Dropseed
Local Name
Binomial Name Sporobolus virginicus
Family Poaceae
Notes Generic name from the Greek spora, sporos “seed, spore” and ballo, bolis, bolos “casting” and referring to the dropping and dispersion of the seeds. [CRC]
For more on Sporobolus see Binomen Art - Sporobolus virginicus.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Puerto Villamil near Hotel Sol.

Sporobolus virginicus
Sporobolus virginicus Sporobolus virginicus


Common Name Button Mangrove
Local Name Mangle Botón
Binomial Name Conocarpus erectus
Family Combretaceae, “deadwood family.”
Notes The generic name, Conocarpus, comes from the Greek konos meaning “cone” and carpos meaning “fruit” referring to the cone-shaped fruit. [CRC]
For more on mangroves, see Binomen Art - Mangrove
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Puerto Villamil near Hotel Sol.

Conocarpus erectus
Conocarpus erectus Conocarpus erectus

Common Name White Mangrove
Local Name Mangle Blanco
Binomial Name Laguncularia racemosa
Family Combretaceae, “deadwood family.”
Notes White Mangrove’s generic name comes from the Latin laguncula meaning “small flask or bottle”. This Laguncularia racemosa fact sheet form the University of Florida states that laguncularia refers the shape of the white mangrove’s fruit and that the specific epithet, racemosa, or “cluster” refers to the growth pattern of the fruits in racemes.
For more on mangroves, see Binomen Art - Mangrove
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Puerto Villamil near Hotel Sol.

Laguncularia racemosa
Laguncularia racemosa Laguncularia racemosa


Common Name Black Mangrove
Local Name Mangle Negro
Binomial Name Avicennia germinans
Family Acanthaceae
Notes The generic name honors the Persian physician Avicenna (980 - 1037).
For more on mangroves, see Binomen Art - Mangrove
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2, 3: Puerto Villamil

Avicennia germinans
Avicennia germinans Avicennia germinans Avicennia germinans

Common Name Red Mangrove
Local Name Mangle Rojo
Binomial Name Rhizophora mangle
Notes Generic name from the Greek rhiza “a root” and phoros “bearing, carrying” and referring to the aerial roots. [CRC]
For more on mangroves, see Binomen Art - Mangrove.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Puerto Villamil, Isabela Island
Photo 3, 4: Playa Ancha, San Cristóbal Island

Rhizophora mangle Photo 1 and 2
Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle
Rhizophora mangle Photo 3 and 4
Rhizophora mangle Rhizophora mangle

Common Name Inkberry, Sea Grape
Local Name
Binomial Name Scaevola plumieri
Family Goodeniaceae
Notes Generic name for Roman hero C. Mucius Scaevola, whose surname means “left-handed” and referring to the left-hand twisting of the corolla. [CRC]
For more, see Binomen Art - Scaevola plumieri.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Road to Wall of Tears, Isabela Island
Photo 3, 4: Tortuga Bay, Santa Cruz Island

Scaevola plumieri (photo 1, 2)
Scaevola plumieri Scaevola plumieri
Scaevola plumieri (photo 3, 4)
Scaevola plumieri Scaevola plumieri

Common Name Gray Mat Plant
Local Name
Binomial Name Tiquilia galapagoa
Family Boraginaceae
Notes Generic name from the native South American name for flower. [ref] Name does not appear in Quattrocchi / CRC.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1: Playa del Amor, Isabela.
Photo 2: Playa Ancha, San Cristóbal

Tiquilia galapagoa (photo 1 left, photo 2 right)
Tiquilia galapagoaTiquilia galapagoa


Common Name Scalesia Affinis
Local Name lechoso de lava (fern lava), tabaquillo
Binomial Name Scalesia affinis
Family Asteraceae
Notes Interestingly, Scalesia does not appear in Quattrocchi / CRC.

For more on the name, see Binomen Art - Scalesia.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Pozzo Redondo, Isabela

Scalesia affinis
Scalesia affinis
 
Common Name Galápagos Tree Fern
Local Name Helecho arbóreo
Binomial Name Cyathea weatherbyana
Family Cyatheaceae
Notes Generic name from the Greek kyanthos “a cup or ladle”, kaytheion “a little cup,” in reference to the spore cases. [CRC]
The specific epithet honors Charles Alfred Weatherby (1875 - 1949), botanist and associated with the American Fern Journal.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Volcan Sierra Negra trailhead

Cyathea weatherbyana
Cyathea weatherbyana

Common Name Wild Cowpea
Local Name
Binomial Name Vigna luteola
Family Fabaceae
Notes Generic name Vigna for Domenico Vigna (d 1647) a 17th century Italian botanist. [dg].
The specific epithet, luteola, is for the yellowish flower.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Vigna luteola
Vigna luteola

Common Name Fringed Orchid
Local Name
Binomial Name Habenaria monorrhiza
Family Orchidaceae
Notes Generic name, Habenaria, from the Latin habena meaning rein or strap and referring to the shape of the orchid’s spur. [dg]
The lip of this orchid is usually trilobed and always spurred, in some species the spur is long and strap-shaped and swollen towards the apex, or referring to the long anther canals. [CRC]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Habenaria monorrhiza

Habenaria monorrhiza
 
Common Name Sacramento Bur
Local Name Pegadillo
Binomial Name Triumfetta semitriloba
Family Tiliaceae
Notes Generic name, Triumfetta, after Giovanni Battista Triumfetti (1658 - 1708) professor of Botany and Director of the Botanical Garden in Rome, Italy. [dg][CRC]
The specific epithet, semitriloba, derives from the Greek semi menaning “half” and triloba meaning “three-lobed” referring to the leaves as almost having three lobes? [dg]
Status Native or introduced. [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Triumfetta semitriloba

Triumfetta semitriloba Triumfetta semitriloba
  
Common Name Yellow Star-Grass
Local Name
Binomial Name Hypoxis decumbens
Family Hypoxidaceae
Notes The generic name, Hypoxis, from the Greek hypo, (beneath) and oxys, (sharp); referring to the base of the capsule. [ref]
The specific epithet, decumbens, means creeping with ends upright. [ref]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Hypoxis decumbens

Hypoxis decumbens

Common Name Germander
Local Name Laurel
Binomial Name Teucrium vesicarium
Family Lamiaceae
Notes Generic name possibly for the Greek teukrion for Teucer (Teukros) the founder of the town in Salamis in Cyprus; Latin teucrion for a plant, the germander. [CRC]
The specific epithet, vesicarium, mean “with a bladder” - but, referring to what part of the plant? [dg]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Teucrium vesicarium

Teucrium vesicarium Teucrium vesicarium 

Common Name Cat's Claw, Wait-a-Minute-Bush
Local Name Uña de gato
Binomial Name Zanthoxylum fagara
Family Rutaceae
Notes Generic name from the Greek xanthos “yellow” and xylon “wood” referring to the yellow die sometimes contained in the roots of some species. [CRC]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz.

Zanthoxylum fagara

Zanthoxylum fagara

Common Name Lance-leafed Darwin’s Shrub
Local Name
Binomial Name Darwiniothamnus lancifolious
Family Asteraceae
Notes The generic name means “Darwin’s shrub” from the Greek thamnos for bush.
The specific epithet, lancifolius, refers to the lance-shaped leaves.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Darwiniothamnus lancifolious

Darwiniothamnus lancifolious

Common Name Thin-leafed Darwin Bush
Local Name
Binomial Name Darwiniothamnus tenuifolius
Family Asteraceae
Notes The generic names means “Darwin’s shrub” from the Greek thamnos for bush.
The specific epithet, tenuifolius, refers to the slender-shaped leaves.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Photo Location Photo 1: Ranchas Primicias, Santa Cruz Island.
Photo 2, 3, 4: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Darwiniothamnus tenuifolius
(photo 1 left, photo 2 right)

Darwiniothamnus tenuifoliusDarwiniothamnus tenuifolius
Darwiniothamnus tenuifolius (photo 3 left, photo 4 right)Darwiniothamnus tenuifoliusDarwiniothamnus tenuifolius
Darwiniothamnus tenuifolius (photo 5)
Darwiniothamnus tenuifolius

Common Name Narrow-leafed Lippia
Local Name Lippia
Binomial Name Lippia rosmarinifolia
Family Verbenaceae
Notes Generic name honors Augusto (Augustin) Lippi, 17th century Italian naturalist. [dg]
The specific epithet refers to the foliage resembling rosemary. [dg]
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island. Near Volcan Chico
Photo 2: Muro de las Lagrimas, Isabela Island.

Lippia rosmarinifolia
(photo 1 left, photo 2 right)

Lippia rosmarinifolia Lippia rosmarinifolia

Common Name Soapberry, False Dogwood
Local Name El Jaboncillo
Binomial Name Sapindus saponaria
Family Sapindaceae
Notes Generic name from the Latin sapo, saponis meaning “soap” and indicus meaning “Indian, or India”. [ckm]
Saponins used as an emulsifier and cleanser.
Status Introduced, escaped [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island. Near Volcan Chico.

Sapindus saponaria

Sapindus saponaria Sapindus saponaria

Common Name Scalesia pedunculata
Local Name
Binomial Name Scalesia pedunculata var. pedunculata
Family Asteraceae
Notes For more on the generic name, see Binomen Art - Scalesia.
The secific epithet, pedunculata, likely refers to the fact that the flowers are held out on longer peduncles - the stalks that bear the flowers.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2, 3, 4: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz Island. Photo 5: Ranchas Primicias, Santa Cruz Island.

Scalesia pedunculata
(photo 1, photo 2 – toppled Scalesia)

Scalesia pedunculata Scalesia pedunculata Scalesia pedunculata (photo 3, 4)
Scalesia pedunculata Scalesia pedunculata Scalesia pedunculata (photo 5)
Scalesia pedunculata

Common Name Scalesia cordata
Local Name
Binomial Name Scalesia cordata
Family Asteraceae
Notes For more on the generic name, see Binomen Art - Scalesia.
The specific epithet refers to the “heart-shaped” leaves.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Campo Duro, Isabela Island.

Scalesia cordata

Scalesia cordata Scalesia cordata

Common Name Galápagos Peperomia
Local Name Congona
Binomial Name Peperomia galapagensis var. galapagensis
Family Perperomiaceaea
Notes Generic name from the Greek peperi meaning “pepper” and homoios, homios meaning “resembling”. [dg]
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz Island.

Peperomia galapagensis var. galapagensis

Peperomia galapagensis var. galapagensis

Common Name Galápagos Guava
Local Name Guayabilla
Binomial Name Psidium galapageium var. galapageium
Family Myrtaceae
Notes Generic name from the Latin psidium, from the Greek sidion, from side, sida, sibde or “pomegranate”. [CRC]
The specific epithet, galapageium, refers to the fact that this is the endemic guava.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz Island.

Psidium galapageium
var. galapageium

Psidium galapageium var. galapageium

Common Name Milkberry
Local Name Espuela de Gallo, Chiococca
Binomial Name Chiococca alba
Family Rubiaceae
Notes White berries -> Chion + cocca.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz Island.

Chiococca alba

Chiococca alba Chiococca alba

Common Name Galápagos Orchid
Local Name
Binomial Name Epidendrum spicatum
Family Orchidaceae
Notes Generic name from the Greek epi “upon, above, on top” and dendron “a tree” referring to the ephiphytic habit of these plants that grow on trees. [CRC]
The specific epithet, spicatum, means “grow ears (like corn), in spikes” [dg] - possibly referring to growth habit of the leaves or flower spike.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz

Epidendrum spicatum

Epidendrum spicatum Epidendrum spicatum

Common Name Chaff flower
Local Name alternantera del este
Binomial Name Alternanthera flavicoma
Family Amaranthacea
Notes Generic name refers to alternating anthers being fertile and sterile, whereas in most species, alternate anthers are barren. [CRC]
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Puerto Baquerizo Moreno waterfront, San Cristóbal.

Alternanthera flavicoma

Alternanthera flavicoma


Common Name Indefatigable Passion Flower
Local Name Granadilla silvestre
Binomial Name Passiflora colinvauxii
Family Passifloraceae
Notes Generic name from the Latin passio, inis meaning “passion” and flos, floris meaning a “flower” and referring to the flowers that symbolize the passion and crucifixion of Jesus Christ. [CRC]
The specific epithet, colinvauxii, after Paul Colinvaux who discovered the vine.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz

Passiflora colinvauxii

Passiflora colinvauxii


Common Name Mormordica, Balsam Pear, Bitter Gourd
Local Name Achojcha China
Binomial Name Momordica charantia
Family Cucurbitaceae - cucumber/melon family
Notes Generic name from the Latin mordeo, momordi, morsum, mordere “to bite” referring to the jagged and chewed appearance of the seeds because the seeds appear if they have been bitten. [CRC]
Status Introduced, escaped [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Rancho Primicias, Santa Cruz

Momordica charantia
Momordica charantia Momordica charantia


Common Name Common Coral Bean
Local Name Porotillo
Binomial Name Erythrina spp. possibly corallodendron
Family Fabaceae
Notes The generic name from the Greek erythros “red” and anthos “flower”. [CRC]
Status Introduced/cultivated [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2, 3: Rancho Primicias, Santa Cruz

Erythrina spp. 
Erythrina spp. Erythrina spp. Erythrina spp.


Common Name Spanish Cedar, Cuban Cedar
Local Name Cedrela, cedro cubano
Binomial Name Cedrela odorata
Family Meliaceae
Notes The generic name from the Spanish cedrelo, diminuitive of the Latin cedrus,i “the cedar, Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Plinius)” and Greek kedros “cedar, cedar-tree, prickly cedar, Syrian cedar, Phoenician cedar, Himalayan cedar, juniper”. [CRC]
The specific epithet due to the heartwood being aromatic and resembling the aroma of true cedar.
Status Introduced, pest [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Rancho Primicias, Santa Cruz

Cedrela odorata
Cedrela odorata Cedrela odorata


Common Name Coffee Senna
Local Name Senna Café
Binomial Name Senna occidentalis
Family Fabaceae (Caesalpiniodeae)
Notes The generic name comes from the Arabic sana or sanna. [CRC]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Los Gemelos, Santa Cruz

Senna occidentalis
Senna occidentalis Senna occidentalis


Common Name Flat-Fruited Senna
Local Name Senna, Caccia-picta
Binomial Name Senna pistaciifolia
Family Fabaceae (Caesalpiniodeae)
Notes The generic name comes from the Arabic sana or sanna. [CRC]
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2, 3: Rancho Primicias, Santa Cruz Island.

Senna pistaciifolia
Senna pistaciifolia Senna pistaciifolia
Senna pistaciifolia


Common Name Candle Senna
Local Name Palo de Abejón
Binomial Name Senna alata
Family Fabaceae (Caesalpiniodeae)
Notes The generic name comes from the Arabic sana or sanna. [CRC]
The specific epithet, alata, means “winged” - possibly referring to dried fruits.
Status Escaped [cdf]
Location Photo: Rancho Primicias, Santa Cruz Island.

Senna alata

Senna alata


Common Name Chaff Flower
Local Name Escansel
Binomial Name Alternanthera mexicana
Family Amaranthaceae
Notes Generic name refers to alternating anthers being fertile and sterile, whereas in most species, alternate anthers are barren. [CRC]
Status Questionable Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2: Sierra Negra Trail, Isabela Island

Alternanthera mexicana
Alternanthera mexicana Alternanthera mexicana


Common Name Common Guava
Local Name Gauyabo, guayaba
Binomial Name Psidium guajava
Family Myrtaceae - the myrtle family.
Notes Generic name from the Latin psidium, from the Greek sidion, from side, sida, sibde or “pomegranate”. [CRC] But why?
The specific epithet, guajava, derived from Spanish name for this fruit, guayaba.
Status Introduced, pest [cdf]
Location Photo 1, 2, 3: Rancho Primicias, Santa Cruz

Psidium guajava
Psidium guajava Psidium guajava Psidium guajava


Common Name Galápagos Tomato
Local Name Tomatillo
Binomial Name Lycopersicon cheesmanii (ae)
Solanum cheesmaniae
Family Solanaceae - Nightshade family.
Notes The generic name Lycopersicon from the Greek lykopersion for an Egyptian plant with a strong-smelling yellowish juice, some suggest from the Greek lykos “a wolf” and persikon “a peach”, possibly referring to the poisonous or toxic properties. [CRC]
The generic name Solanum from the Latin solanum, a plant name used probably for Solanum nigrum, solanum applied by Plinius to a plant, also called strychnos, nightshade, from the Latin sol, solis “sun”, the plants of the sun. For other possible origins, see page 2504 of Volume IV. [CRC]
The specific epithet, cheesmanii (masculine) was corrected to cheesmaniae (feminine). The person who named this species thought the collector was a man when in fact it was a woman, Lucy Evelyn Cheesman. The story is discussed in the very interesting book, Dry Storeroom #1 by Richard Fortey.
Status Endemic [cdf]
Location Photo: Path to Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz

Solanum cheesmaniae

Solanum cheesmaniae


Common Name Leatherleaf
Local Name Guide called it arrayán, others say arrayáncillo. Also called Rompe Ollas or “pot-breaker” because it produces a a lot of heat when burned and tends to break clay cooking pots unless used with care.
Binomial Name Maytenus octogona
Family Celastraceae - Staff-tree family.
Notes Generic names from the Chilean (Araucan) maiten, mayten, or mayton for the type species Maytenus boaria.
Status Native [cdf]
Location Photo 1: Path to Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz
Photo 2: Trail to Tortuga Bay, Santa Cruz Island.

Maytenus octogona (photo 1 left, photo 2 right)
Maytenus octogona Maytenus octogona


Common Name Moon Flower
Local Name
Binomial Name Ipomoea alba
Family Convolvulaceae
Notes Generic name from Greek ips, pios “bindweed, or a kind of worm or beetle that eats vines” and homoios, homios “resembling, similar to,” referring to the habit, or to long trailing stems or to similarities this genus has with Convolvus. [CRC]
Status Questionable Native [cdf]
Location Photo: Sierra Negra Trail, Isabela Island.

Ipomoea alba

Ipomoea alba


Common NameGalápagos Mistletoe, Foradendron
Local NameSuelda con suelda
Binomial NamePhoradendron henslowii
FamilyViscaceae
NotesGeneric name from the Greek phoros “bearing, carrying,” phero, phoreo “to bear” and dendron “tree. [CRC]

P. henslowii is a woody hemi-parasitic shrubs with branches which grows on trees. 
StatusEndemic [cdf]
LocationPhoto: Sierra Negra Trail, Isabela Island, Near Volcan Chico.

Phoradendron henslowii
Phoradendron henslowii


Common NameNeedle-Leaf Laricifolia
Local NameRomerillo
Binomial NameMacraea lanricifolia
FamilyAsteraceae
NotesGeneric name from the Greek makros “long”. [CRC].
StatusEndemic [cdf]
LocationPhoto 1, 2: Sierra Negra Trail, Isabela Island. Near Volcan Chico

Macraea lacidfolia



Common NameThorn Shrub
Local NameEspino
Binomial NameScutia spicata (syn. Scutia paucifolia)
FamilyRhamnaceae
NotesGeneric name from Latin scutum, i “a shield” referring to the form of the disk. [CRC] What part of the plant, the leaves?

Species epithet spicata meaning “with spikes”.
StatusQuestional Endemic [cdf]
Location
Photo 1: Trail to Tortuga Bay, Santa Cruz Island.
Photo 2: Playa Ancha, San Cristóbal Island.

Scutia spicata (photo 1 left, photo 2 right)



Common NameBrazilian Tea, False Vervain
Local NameEspino
Binomial NameStachytarpheta cayennensis
FamilyVerbanaceae
Notes
Generic name from the Greek stachys “spike” and tarphys “thick”, tarpheios “dense” referring to the flower spikes and closely packed flowers.

Species epithet cayennensis means “of or from Cayenne, French Guinea”.
StatusQuestional Accidental [cdf]
LocationPhoto: Sierra Negra trail, Isabela Island.

Stachytarpheta cayennensis

4 comments:

  1. Hi....
    Nice site! Galapagos is a great place to travel. I am currently writing an article from our extencive trip to Galapagos in 2011, focusing on Darwin's route here. In this connection I would like to request permission to you your photo of Psidium galapageium show above? The article will appear on this site: www.biophoto.no and full refs and link to your page and photographer will of course be given.
    best wishes
    Alf J. Nilsen,
    Norway

    ReplyDelete
  2. Sure, go ahead. I look forward to reading the article. Please send a link to it when finished. Happy New Year!

    ReplyDelete
  3. Very nicely done and quite useful as I am sorting through my photos! Many thanks for your nice work.

    ReplyDelete