Sunday, June 21, 2020

A Hike Around the Cinque Laghi above Valgoglio, Italy


Overlooking Lago Sucotto.Lago Nero above Vagoglio, Italy.
Cinque Laghi trail stats and profile.Center of Valgoglio.A patch of snow left above Lago Nero on the way to Lago di Aviasco.
Top Left: Overlooking Lago Sucotto. Upper Left: Lago Nero above Vagoglio, Italy.
Bottom Left: Cinque Laghi trail stats and profile. Bottom Center: Center of Valgoglio. Center Right: A patch of snow left above Lago Nero on the way to Lago di Aviasco.

Overview


Length: 12.4 km (7.7 mi)
Duration: 6.0 hours total, with 45-minute lunch break at north end of Lago Nero
Elevation: 1,177 m (3,862 ft) @ start/end of hike at Parcheggio Località Becc; max elevation 2,081 m (6,827 ft) between Lago di Aviasco and Lago Campelli Alto; elevation gain 1,321 m (4,334 ft) reported by viewranger
Location: Italy, Lombardy, Bergamo, Alta Val Seriana, Valgoglio

Details


The name Valgoglio comes from the Bergamasque dialect for the term “goi”, meaning a deep river pool. The Goglio river and the town of Valgolgio are similarly derived from the term. In terms of hikes, it’s one of the rare hikes we have repeated! Our friends messaged us on Saturday about hiking to Lago Cernello and we didn’t think to check this blog to see we had already done part of this hike.

The post A Short Hike to Cinque Laghi, Above Valgoglio documents our first experience just about two years ago today. Back then, the day was grey and cool, and we were part of slower moving group, so we did not do a tour of the lakes. This time, the weather was perfect, and we did make it around to visit all five of the principal lakes.

Hiking up to the lake and visiting the five principle lakes will involve these trails: CAI 228, CAI 229, CAI 268. The trail is very well signed and worn, so you will not get lost. The biggest choice you have is whether to do the tour of the lakes clockwise or counterclockwise. We chose the former. There were a few parts of the trail – heading to Sucotto – where the trail was steep and had cables for grips (visible in one of the photos in this post).

You will notice in photos of this post that we are hiking with masks, which are still required here in Lombardy – on the date of this hike. We usually wore them under our chins or took them off when not near other hikers, but put them back on when approaching others within six or so feet. There you go, hiking during the coronavirus pandemic.

Very visible along the trail is the green condotta forzata (pipeline) that carries water from the lakes down to the Centrale di Aviasco (station) at 984 m, for a drop of about 1,000 m. The Aviasco station can supply the energy needs of about 10,000 families. The station was built in 1925, and the Lago Nero dam was constructed in the 1920s by Azienda Elettrica Crespi, placing the dam projects somewhere in the early 1920s. What’s interesting is that these dams seem to be connected to Crespi d’Adda. The Crespi family was behind hydroelectric projects on the Adda river, like the Taccani Hydroelectrical Power Station. We couldn’t find any easy resource talking about what Crespi was doing in the mountains of the upper Val Seriana.


Going clockwise from the “ENEL Village”, you will arrive at the five principle lakes:

  • Lago Nero (2,014 m) – artificial
  • Lago di Aviasco (2,070 m) – artificial
  • Lago Campelli Alta (2,037 m) – artificial
  • Lago Cernello (1,958 m) – natural
  • Lago Sucotto (1,854 m) – natural

After the grind of the first part of the trail, you end up on a sort of plateau called Villaggio Enel. As with all names, we wonder, why was it named like that?

Names: It pains us to no end not to know about all the lake names on this hike. Lago di Aviasco is called that after the nearby pass of the same name. Lago Nero is named so because of its dark waters or so we read. However, the origin of the names of Cernello, Campelli and Sucotto eluded us.

So, what is ENEL? Enel S.p.A., or the Enel Group, is an Italian multinational energy company that is active in the sectors of electricity generation and distribution. ENEL is an acronym that stands for National Entity for Electricity (Ente Nazionale per l’energia Elettrica). It was formed in 1962 when Italy nationalized the production and distribution of electric power. ENEL, we are guessing took over the hydroelectric production of these lakes, modernized, and created this villaggio as a place for workers to stay.


Flora


Valgoglio is also the gateway to the Val Sanguigno, a spot known for its biodiversity. From the trail today, we could see into the beginning of the Val Sanguigno dotted in the yellow of Laburnum anagyroides or Common Laburnum (Maggiociondolo in Italian) – in the pea family (Fabaceae).

Today, one of the plants we noted latest time Daphne striata, was again in abundance, and this time got down on our knees to breath in the wonderful scent it produces.

We saw many of the same plants as we did last time – being the same time of year – only with with better lighting.

As usual, check out our flora resources page Resources for Identifying Plants around Bergamo and our Pinterest page.

Key: [Family] Genus species – Common name in English (Common name in Italian)

[Asteraceae] Cirsium sp.

[Boraginaceae] Myosotis – Forget Me Not (Nontiscordardimè)

[Campanulaceae] Phyteuma sp. – Globe Headed Rampion (Raponzolo alpino)
  • A Phyteuma definitely, but which one is a kind of hard to know. P. hemispheericum is more common and is found at slightly lower elevations. For these reasons, we went with P. hemisphaericum.

[Ericaceae] Rhododendron ferrugineum – Alpenrose (Rododendro rosso)

[Fabaceae] Cytisus scoparius – Scotch Broom (Ginestra dei carbonai)

[Gentinanaceae] Gentiana clusii – Trumpet Gentian (Genziana di Clusius) - not pictured here

[Lamiaceae] Ajuga pyramidalis – Pyramidal Bugle (Iva piramidale)

[Lentibulariaceae] Pinguicula vulgaris – Common Butterwort (Erba unta comune)

[Liliaceae] Paradisea liliastrum – St Bruno’s Lily (Giglio di monte)

[Orchidaceae] Dactylorhiza maculata – Spotted Heath Orchid (Orchide macchiata)

[Papaveraceae] Corydalis lutea – Rock Fumewort, Yellow Corydalis (Colombina gialla)

[Plantaginaceae] Linaria alpina – Alpine Toadflax (Linajola alpina)

[Polygalaceae] Polygala chamaebuxus – Shrubby Milkwort (Poligala falso bosso)

[Ranuculaceae] Anemone narcissiflora –  Narcissus Anemone (Anemone a fiore di narciso)

[Rosaceae] Potentilla reptans – Creeping Cinquefoil (Cinquefoglia comune)

[Primulaceae] Primula daonensis – (Primula della Valle di Daone)

[Primulaceae] Soldanella alpina – Alpine Snowbell (Soldanella comune)

[Scrophulariaceae] Verbascum alpinum – Mullein (Verbasco alpino)

[Thymelaeaceae] Daphne striata – Striped Daphne (Dafne striata)

[Violaceae] Viola biflora – Yellow Violet (Viola con due fiori)

References


Some references consulted in preparing this post.


[Asteraceae] Cirsium sp.[Campanulaceae] Phyteuma sp.[Lamiaceae] Ajuga pyramidalis – Pyramidal Bugle (Iva piramidale).
Left: [Asteraceae] Cirsium sp. Center: [Campanulaceae] Phyteuma sp. Left: [Lamiaceae] Ajuga pyramidalis – Pyramidal Bugle (Iva piramidale).

[Boraginaceae] Myosotis – Forget Me Not (Nontiscordardimè).[Lentibulariaceae] Pinguicula vulgaris – Common Butterwort (Erba unta comune).
Left: [Boraginaceae] Myosotis – Forget Me Not (Nontiscordardimè). Right: [Lentibulariaceae] Pinguicula vulgaris – Common Butterwort (Erba unta comune).

[Liliaceae] Paradisea liliastrum – St Bruno’s Lily (Giglio di monte).[Ranuculaceae] Anemone narcissiflora –  Narcissus Anemone (Anemone a fiore di narciso).[Ericaceae] Rhododendron ferrugineum – Alpenrose (Rododendro rosso).
Left: [Liliaceae] Paradisea liliastrum – St Bruno’s Lily (Giglio di monte). Center: [Ranuculaceae] Anemone narcissiflora –  Narcissus Anemone (Anemone a fiore di narciso). Right: [Ericaceae] Rhododendron ferrugineum – Alpenrose (Rododendro rosso).

[Fabacease] Cytisus scoparius – Scotch Broom (Ginestra dei carbonai).[Papaveraceae] Corydalis lutea – Rock Fumewort, Yellow Corydalis (Colombina gialla).[Rosaceae] Potentilla reptans – Creeping Cinquefoil (Cinquefoglia comune).
Left: [Fabaceae] Cytisus scoparius – Scotch Broom (Ginestra dei carbonai). Center: [Papaveraceae] Corydalis lutea – Rock Fumewort, Yellow Corydalis (Colombina gialla). Right: [Rosaceae] Potentilla reptans – Creeping Cinquefoil (Cinquefoglia comune).

[Orchidaceae] Dactylorhiza maculata – Spotted Heath Orchid (Orchide macchiata). [Plantaginaceae] Linaria alpina – Alpine Toadflax (Linajola alpina).[Primulaceae] Soldanella alpina – Alpine Snowbell (Soldanella comune).
Left: [Orchidaceae] Dactylorhiza maculata – Spotted Heath Orchid (Orchide macchiata). Center: [Plantaginaceae] Linaria alpina – Alpine Toadflax (Linajola alpina). Right: [Primulaceae] Soldanella alpina – Alpine Snowbell (Soldanella comune).

[Primulaceae] Primula daonensis – (Primula della Valle di Daone).[Primulaceae] Primula daonensis – (Primula della Valle di Daone).[Thymelaeaceae] Daphne striata – Striped Daphne (Dafne striata).
Left and Center: [Primulaceae] Primula daonensis – (Primula della Valle di Daone). Right: [Thymelaeaceae] Daphne striata – Striped Daphne (Dafne striata).

[Polygalaceae] Polygala chamaebuxus – Shrubby Milkwort (Poligala falso bosso). [Scrophulariaceae] Verbascum alpinum – Mullein (Verbasco alpino). [Violaceae] Viola biflora – Yellow Violet (Viola con due fiori).
Left: [Polygalaceae] Polygala chamaebuxus – Shrubby Milkwort (Poligala falso bosso). Center: [Scrophulariaceae] Verbascum alpinum – Mullein (Verbasco alpino). Right: [Violaceae] Viola biflora – Yellow Violet (Viola con due fiori).

At the beginning of the trial and a view of Val Sanguigno with the yellow of Laburnum visible. The trail above Villaggio ENEL.
Left: At the beginning of the trial and a view of Val Sanguigno with the yellow of Laburnum visible. Right: The trail above Villaggio ENEL.

A patch snow on the trial between Lago Nero and Lago di Aviasco.A patch snow on the trial between Lago Nero and Lago di Aviasco.
Left and right: A patch snow on the trial between Lago Nero and Lago di Aviasco.

From the trail, a view of Lago Cernello. The dam on Lago Cernello
Left: From the trail, a view of Lago Cernello. Right: The dam on Lago Cernello.

The dam at Lago di Aviasco with trail indicators. Walking around the north end of Lago Nero.
Left: The dam at Lago di Aviasco with trail indicators. Right: Walking around the north end of Lago Nero.

The dam at Lago Sucotto. View from the trail looking south down the Alta Val Seriana.
Left: The dam at Lago Sucotto. Right: View from the trail looking south down the Alta Val Seriana.

Lago di Aviasco with Passo Aviasco in the distance. Peek-a-boo with a camoscio - Rupicapra rupicapra.
Left: Lago di Aviasco with Passo Aviasco in the distance. Right: Peek-a-boo with a camoscio - Rupicapra rupicapra.

Sign describing the Parco delle Orobie Bergamasche.Sign describing the Valle del Goglio River.
Left: Sign describing the Parco delle Orobie Bergamasche. Right: Sign describing the Valle del Goglio River.

Monday, June 15, 2020

City Names in Italian – Why They Are Sometimes in English




The question


Did you ever wonder why in the Italian language some city names are “Italianized” while others are not? Why do Italians say and write Berlino (for Berlin) yet say Amsterdam? Why do they use Londra for London, yet use New York (city) as is? Well, we wondered too and here’s what we found out.

The answer is contained in this Accademia Della Crusca entry, Toponimi stranieri in italiano and it is this in a nutshell: up until 1900, the names of cities with which Italy had frequent contact were adapted to Italian spelling and pronunciation. After 1900, the adaptation of names diminished but already established names stayed around. For example, in the neighboring France, the much older, larger, and historically important town of Nice is referred to as Nizza, while the smaller and relatively newer town of Cannes doesn’t change its name in Italian.

Based on the Crusca article, we went looking for city names and generated two lists below. The first list gives cities that have an Italian spelling and pronunciation. The second list give cities that have an English spelling (and an Italian pronunciation). 
An observation about pronouncing English names when talking with an Italian. Even if you are English native-tongue and give a perfectly acceptable English pronunciation of an English or American place name that doesn’t change spelling between English and Italian, you will get a blank stare and possible correction when the Italian person you are talking to realizes what you are saying. For an Italian, the English name must be pronounced the Italian way, observing the correct vocal sounds and double consonants pronunciations. For example, it’s See – àt – tull for Seattle, giving equal wait to both Ts in an almost exaggerated style. Montana is Mòan – tah – nah.

In this post, we are dealing only with city names, but it seems reasonable to assume the same idea applies to country names as well.

Good sources for names and stressed syllables are Rai’s Dizionario italiano multimediale e multilingue d’Ortografia e di Prounucia (DOP) and the Dizionario Italiano Olivetti.

City names with Italian spelling


The below have an Italian spelling.

Key: English city name (country name) – Italian city (country name) 

For Italian names in the list, the stressed syllable is indicated that would not normally be written. 

* designates a city not exactly “Italianized” but that has a modified form, see reference 1.

Alexandria (Egypt) – Alessàndria (L’Egìtto)
Algiers (Algiera) – Algèri (L’Algerìa) 
Athens (Greece) – Atène (La Grècia) 
Barcelona (Spain) – Barcellóna* (La Spàgna) 
Berlin (Germany) – Berlìno (La Germània)
Bern (Switzerland) – Bèrna (La Svìzzera) 
Brussels (Belgium) – Bruxelles, Brussèlle (Il Bèlgio) 
Bucharest (Romania) – Bùcarest (La Romanìa) 
Cologne (Germany) – Colònia (La Germània) 
Copenhagen (Denmark) – Copenàghen* (Danimàrca) 
Dublin (Ireland) – Dublìno (L’Irlànda)
Edinburgh (Scotland) – Edimbùrgo (La Scòzia) 
Frankfurt (Germany) – Francofòrte sul Meno (La Germània) 
Geneva (Switzerland) – Ginévra (La Svìzzera) 
Gibraltar (United Kingdom) – Gibiltèrra (Il Regno Unito) 
The Hague (Netherlands) – L'Àia (I Pasesi Bassi) 
Havana (Cuba) – l'Avàna (La Repubblica di Cuba) 
Jeddah (Saudia Arabia) – Gèdda (L'Aràbia Saudìta)
Jerusalem (Israel) – Gerusalèmme (Israèle) 
Kraków (Poland) – Cracòvia (La Polònia) 
Lisbon (Portgual) – Lisbóna (Il Portogàllo) 
Lyon (France) – Lióne (La Frància) 
London (England) – Lóndra (L’Inghiltèrra) 
Marseille (France) – Marsìglia (La Frància) 
Moscow (Russia) – Mòsca (La Rùssia) 
Munich (Germany) – Mònaco di Bavièra (La Germània) 
Nice (France) – Nìzza (La Frància) 
Paris (France) – Parìgi (La Frància) 
Peking/Beijing (China) – Pechìno (La Cìna) 
Prague (Czech Republic) – Pràga (La Repubblica Ceca) 
Saint Petersburg (Russia) – San Pietrobùrgo (La Rùssia) 
Salzburg (Austria) – Salisbùrgo (L’Àustria) 
Tunis (Tunisia) – Tùnisi (La Tunisìa) 
Zaragoza (Spain) – Saragòzza (La Spàgna) 
Seville (Spain) – Sivìglia (La Spàgna) 
Stockholm (Sweden) – Stoccólma (La Svèzia) 
Strasbourg (France) – Strasbùrgo (La Frància) 
Tolouse (France) – Tolósa (La Frància) 
Warsaw (Poland) – Varsàvia (La Polònia) 
Zürich (Switzerland) – Zurìgo (La Svìzzera)


City names with English spelling


These city names do not change spelling in Italian. How they are pronounced is another story.

Amsterdam, Beirut, Budapest, Cambridge, Cairo, Cannes, Chicago, Dortmund, Dubai, Glasgow, Istanbul, Madrid, Málaga, Marbella, New York, Oslo, Sydney, Tunisia, Vienna, Washington

References


[1] Accademia Della Crusca: Toponimi stranieri in italiano
[2] Rai Dizionario italiano multimediale e multilingue d’Ortografia e di Prounucia (DOP)
[3] Dizionario Italiano Olivetti
[4] People and Place Names in Italian: Correct Pronunciation