Thursday, May 4, 2017

Bergamo – Street Sign Language Lesson XIX

Street Sign Language Lesson 18 < Street Sign Language Lesson 19

This issue of Street Sign Language Lesson ™ includes: discrimination against ugly waiters, the plague, gross anti-smoking images, and interesting baby food choices in Italy.

Looking for good-looking staff. Cigarette box: Coughing up blood. Warning to not park motorcycles.
Bergamo signs. Left: Looking for good-looking staff. Center: Coughing up blood. Right: Warning to not park motorcycles.

Cercasi cameriere e barista, esperienza minima di 5 anni, persona seria, di bella presenza – “Wanted: waiter and bartender, with a minimum of 5 years’ experience, a serious person and good-looking”
P40 is a bar/restaurant in Piazza Pontida. It was the very first place we ate at when we arrived in Bergamo. Now, we never go there because it’s like dining in a glass fishbowl filled with smoke. Apparently, if you are ugly, you need not apply for this job.

Il fumo danneggia i tuoi polmoni – “Smoking damages your lungs”
I can’t tell you how many of these discarded cigarette carton have caught my eye. (I scream inside: pollution damages the environment as well!) This box was sitting near an ATM. Cigarette cartons have different eye-catching, and often gross, images to dissuade people from smoking. I wonder how effective these images are for reducing tobacco use (tobagismo)? This cigarette carton features a woman coughing blood into a handkerchief. According to Tobacco Control Laws (European Union), warning messages must take up to 65% of front and 65% of back, and be rotated every so often. Here are some other messages you might see on cigarette packages.

Qui non si parcheggia moto o si è multati – “No motorcycle parking here or you will be fined”
I’ll admit it, impersonal forms in Italian confuse me. Let’s see if I don’t muddle this explanation too badly. In the first part of the sentence, we are dealing with the transitive verb to park (parcheggiare) used passively: a motorcycle (moto) is parked. For this case, technically called si passivante, the best translation would be “motorcycles are not parked here” or simply “no motorcycle parking”.

In the second part of the sentence, we are dealing with an intransitive verb (essere “to be”). This case is called si impersonale and depending on context, the phrase could refer to “one”, “you”, “they/people” or generically “it”. “You” is about right for the tone of the message, which is aimed at the person thinking about parking a motorcycle. Note that multati (plural) and not multato (singular) is used because you always use plural adjectives in si impersonale even for singluar verb (si è).

Il Lazzaretto, Bergamo. Men playing cards. Il Lazzaretto, Bergamo: green space in middle. Il Lazzaretto, Bergamo: Cell 65 video installation.
Il Lazzaretto, Bergamo. Left: Men playing cards. Center: Big green area in the middle of Il Lazzaretto. Right: Sign for Cell 65.

Cella LXV – Video installazione sulla peste del 1630 – "Cell 65 – Video installation on the plague of 1630"
This sign was at Il Lazzaretto of Bergamo. The word lazzaretto in Italian means hospital for lepers and people with infectious diseases like the plague (la peste). The Il Lazzaretto consists of rooms (really cells or celle) arranged a large square porticoed courtyard. Each cell has a door and window, which open on to the courtyard. At the time costruction started in 1504, the building was outside the city walls (Città Alta).  The building was expanded to accommodate the increased number of infected from the plague of 1576. Il Lazzaretto saw increased use again during the plague of 1629-1631.

Today Il Lazzaretto is part of Bergamo Infrastructure, and the cells contain offices for various organizations and groups in Bergamo.

Yet another frustrated clean-up-after-your-dog sign in Bergamo. Bottega del Coltello: one week wait. Barazzoni outlet in Bergamo.
Various signs around Bergamo. Left: Your dog doesn't make you pee. Center: Knife sharpening. Right: Cheap pots and pans.

Il tuo cane non ti farebbe pisciare davanti casa degli altri! – “Your dog wouldn’t make you pee in front of other people’s houses”
I couldn’t let this dog sign go by without a comment. It’s certainly one of the most interesting we’ve seen on the subject of dog waste. The sentence uses the causative fare + verbo as in non ti fa pisciare (“he doesn’t make you pee”) with the addition of the conditional mood to become non ti farebbe pisciare (“he wouldn’t make you pee”).

There is something creepy about the position of the dog and its owner.

Informiamo la gentile clientela che per le affilature e le riparazioni il tempo di attesa è di una settimana – "We inform our clients that for sharpening or repairs there is a one week wait"
This sign was spotted at the Bottega del Coltello in Santa Caterina. It’s a great place to go if you are looking for a high-end knife. The noun affilatura is “sharpening” and the related verb is affilare is “to sharpen”.

Svuotiamo tutto per eccedenze di produzione – “We are getting rid of everything due to production surplus”
This sign was spotted at the Barazzoni Outlet store in Bergamo. We confess to buying a few things there because the Agnelli Outlet store was too far away and a bit pricier. The sign uses the verb svuotare, “to empty or gut”.

Baby food in Italy: beef, prosciutto, and rabbit. Baby food in Italy: horse, rabbit, and lamb. Museum of the 1800s in Bergamo and a silkworm explanation. 
Left: Baby food choices in Italy including horse, rabbit, and lamb. Right: Inside the Museum of the 1800s in Bergamo and a silkworm explanation.

Manzo, prosciutto, coniglio, tacchino, cavallo, pollo, agnello, orata – "Beef, ham, rabbit, turkey, horse, chicken, lamb, gilthead bream"
These are choices for baby food that we saw at a grocery store. I only got mushed carrots and peas when I was a baby.

Trinciafoglie per gelsi, lettiera per bachi – "Mulberry leave cutter, bedding for silkworms"
This sign was seen in the Museo Ottocento, part of the Fondazione Bergamo nella storia museum complex, that deals with the history of the 1800s in Bergamo including bachicoltura or the breeding of silkworms (Bombix mori). The raising of silkworms and production of silk in the Bergamo province, as well as much of northern Italy, was huge. The industry suffered a setback in the second half of the 1800s when the pébrine (pebrina in Italian) parasite struck. Silk production limped along until its final decline in the 1900s, killed off by external competition, the introduction of synthetic materials, and migration of people to the cities.

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

A Walk from Bruntino to Sorisole through the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo

Route from Villa D'Almé/Bruntino to Sorisole through the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo.View of one part of the trail called Giro del Monte.
Left: Route from Villa D'Almé/Bruntino to Sorisole through the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo. Right: View of one part of the trail called Giro del Monte.


Length: 11.5 km
Duration: ~ 3 hours
Elevation: Minimum 296 m (971 ft), maximum 647 m (2122 ft), total elevation gain 522 m (1,710 ft)
Location: Italy, Lombardy, Bergamo, Parco dei Colli di Bergamo

Getting There

You can start this hike in Bruntino or Villa D’Almé. Either way, you can take the #9 city bus from Bergamo. It will take about 20 minutes.

Recently, ATB put ticket machines on the buses so you can buy tickets without worrying about getting them ahead of time. That said, we’ll probably continue to use the handy 10 pack of 3 zone tickets we buy every so often, officially called carnet 10 corse. A 3-zone ticket is what you need to get from Bergamo to the airport as well as Bergamo to Villa D’Almé.

The Walk

This hike takes you around, by, or over several small hills in part of the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo, including Monte Bastia (584 m), Monte Giacoma (587 m), Monte dei Giubilini (596 m), and Monte Pissol (687 m). This relatively easy hike takes you through the foothills at the head of the Val Brembana, hills just north of Villa D’Almé and Sorrisole at the northern parts of the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo. The park founded in 1977 comprises about 4,700 ha (11,600 acres) of forested and agricultural land north of Bergamo, between 244 m (800 ft) and 1146 m (3,760 ft) – Canto Alto. The park includes Bergamo's Città Alta.

We exited the bus in Bruntino and made our way to the start of the Giro del Monte Bastia Trail, which takes you clockwise around Monte Bastia. Via Gaione, a steep paved road, turns into the Giro del Monte. Eventually, you end up at Bruntino Alto, and to be honest, you could skip this part because it was the least interesting section of the hike and instead just start at Bruntino Alto.

From Bruntino Alto, there are two trails you can take. We followed the trail around the north side of Monte Giacoma, which brought us along the "didactic trail for the senses" (percorso didattico sensoriale), where our olfactory senses were awakened by a light garlic scent coming from patches of bear’s garlic (Allium ursinum).

After Monte Giacoma, we climbed over the wooded Monte dei Giubilini to descend into Azzonica and then a hop over to Sorisole.

Lunch was at Trattoria Antichi Sapori, a simple and satisfying lunch spot in Sorisole. We took the #7 bus back to Bergamo because we had an afternoon appointment.


[Family] Genus species – {Common names in English; Italian}

[Boraginaceae] Symphytum
[Euphorbiaceae] Euphorbia
[Lamiaceae] Lamium galeobdolon – {Yellow Archangel; False ortica giallo}
[Lamiaceae] Salvia pratensis – {Meadow sage; Salvia dei prati}
[Lilliaceae] Allium ursinum – {Bear’s Garlic, Wild Garlic; Aglio orsino}
[Melanthiaceae] Paris quadrifolia – {Herb-Paris, Oneberry; Uva di volpe}

Bear's Garlic or wild garlic (Allium ursinum) along the trail.Bear's Garlic or wild garlic (Allium ursinum) along the trail.
Bear's Garlic or wild garlic (Allium ursinum) along the trail.

Bear's Garlic or wild garlic (Allium ursinum) along the trail.View toward Canto Alto from the north side of Monte Bastia.
Left: Bear's Garlic or wild garlic (Allium ursinum) along the trail. Right: View toward Canto Alto from the north side of Monte Bastia.

EuphorbiaYellow Archangel (Lamium galeobdolon)
Left: Euphorbia. Right:  Yellow Archangel (Lamium galeobdolon).

Herb-Paris or Oneberry (Paris quadrifolia).Herb-Paris or Oneberry (Paris quadrifolia).Symphytum
Left and center: Herb-Paris or Oneberry (Paris quadrifolia). Right: Symphytum.

Area included in the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo.Sign showing stops along a trail designed to please the senses.
Left: Area included in the Parco dei Colli di Bergamo. Right: Sign showing stops along a trail designed to please the senses.

View from above Azzonica looking over Sorisole with Bergamo Alta in the background.Meadow Sage (Salvia pratensis)
Left: View from above Azzonica looking over Sorisole with Bergamo Alta in the background. Right: Meadow Sage (Salvia pratensis).

Monday, May 1, 2017

Italian Words with Tonic Stress on Third-From-Last Syllable

Helleborus (elleboro) flowers. The word in both English and Italian has the third-from-last syllable stressed.Helleborus (elleboro) flowers. The word in both English and Italian has the third-from-last syllable stressed.Helleborus (elleboro) flowers. The word in both English and Italian has the third-from-last syllable stressed.Helleborus (elleboro) flowers. The word in both English and Italian has the third-from-last syllable stressed.
Helleborus (elleboro) flowers. The word in both English and Italian has the third-from-last syllable stressed.

I’ve always kept a list of my “troublesome” words in English, words whose pronunciation I stumble over without fail. Now that I’m spending more time speaking and writing the Italian language, I’m doing the same thing. In particular, I track words in which the accent falls on the third-from-last (ante-penultimate) syllable. My list of third-from-last Italian tongue-twisters is toward the end of this post.

When the stress of a word falls on the third to last syllable, it’s called proparoxytone in English. In Italian, it’s proparossitono or parole sdrucciole. Interestingly, sdrucciolo also means a steep slope and the verb sdrucciolare means to fall down sliding. The way I think about it is that you have to put the stress on the third syllable and then slide to the end of the word as effortlessly as possible.


As pointed out on Linguapress, native speakers of a language don’t often make mistakes putting the stress in the correct place, but these same speakers also don’t actually know the rules. Case in point: I didn’t understand the rules and their exceptions until I read the linked page above. I just understood the “music” of the language and over time pronounced the words correctly, or mostly correctly. There are still some English words for which I have to pause to think about their pronunciation. Interestingly, these are also third-from-last-syllable stressed words, where the stress on the root word changes because of a change in the suffix. Examples are (with stressed syllables in CAPS):

  • AN-a-log, a-NAL-o-gous
  • E-po-nym, e-PON-ym-ous
  • pho-TOG-ra-phy, pho-to-GRAPH-ic, PHO-to-graph
  • SYL-la-ble, syl-LAB-ic
  • SYN-o-nym, syn-ON-y-mous
  • su-PER-flu-ous


In Italian, most words have the stress on the second-from-last (penultimate) syllable. Words that have stress on the third-to-last are fewer and trickier for me to remember. A summary of word stress can be found at Zanichelli Aula di Lingue (in Italian) and JakubMarian (in English).

Let’s take the same English words from above and see what they look like in Italian:

  • a-na-LO-gi-co, a-NA-lo-go
  • e-PO-ni-mo, e-po-NI-mi-co
  • fo-TO-gra-fo, fo-to-GRA-fi-co, fo-to-gra-FI-a
  • SIL-la-ba, sil-LA-bi-co
  • si-NO-ni-mo, si-no-NI-mi-co
  • su-PER-flu-o

The words in Italian are similar to their counterparts in English in terms of word stress, and in particular how the stress changes when the suffix changes. For example, when moving from analog (analogico) to analogous (analogo), the stress remains on the third-from-last syllable in both Italian and English.

This suggests to me that perhaps my problem is that I never correctly mastered word stress rules in English and my bad habits followed me into the Italian language. One recent example that comes to mind is elleboro (el-LE-bo-ro) in Italian. In English, you can use the scientific term Helleborus (he-LEB-o-rus), or in the plain English term hellebores (HEL-le-bore). Both have third-from-last syllable stressed. The problem is that I always pronounced Helleborus incorrectly as he-le-BO-rus, stressing the second-from-last syllable, and this is how I first approached elleboro in Italian, which got giggles and a correction.

I work on my pronunciation of third-from-last-syllable-stressed words by maintaining a list; it's a list of words culled from months of reading and writing in Italian. I read the list aloud every so often. I also put the list in text-to-speech applications (e.g., Google Translate) and listen to their pronunciation. The period after each word in the list adds a pause between each word. Here’s the list:

abito. abside. acero. acronimo. aereo. alcool. alcoolico. ambito. anagrafe. anice. antitesi. apposito. arcipelago. aferesi. affittasi. agnostico. altitudine. anagrafe. analisi. analogico. analogo. anatra. anatroccolo. ancora. angelo. angolo. antibiotico. antipatico. antipode. antropico. apocope. architettonico. arista. astronomo. ateo. atletica. atomo. atono. attendibile. basilica. benefico. bifora. bigamo. biologo. bisdrucciola. bonifico. borragine. briciola. bufala. cadavere. cannibale. capitolo. cappero. capsula. carcere. cardiologico. cardiologo. carico. carnivoro. catalogo. catastrofe. cattedra. celiaco. centimetro. cercasi. chiacchiera. chimico. chiocciola. cibernetica. coetaneo. compito. coriandolo. cupola. debole. democratico. demografo. didattico. dietologo. difficile. digeribile. dinamica. dirigibile. disamina. discepolo. dollaro. dondolo. eccetera. edera. effimero. elicottero. elleboro. enfasi. enfatico. ennesimo. epilogo. epitome. epoca. eponimo. eponimico. esercito. esplicito. estasi. estero. etica. ettaro. facile. farmaco. fascicolo. favola. fegato. filantropo. filosofo. fisico. fotofobico. fotografo. fotografico. garofano. genere. gerarchico. giallognolo. giocattolo. glutine. gocciolo. gondola. gotico. grafico. grammatica. grandine. idillico. igienico. immagine. indagine. instabile. ipotesi. isola. isteresi. lampada. larice. legittimo. lessico. libero. liquido. logico. lucertola. marittimo. meccanica. medico. mensola. metafora. metodo. miracolo. mitico. molecola. monaco. monofora. muscolo. nettare. nocciolo. nobile. nucleo. omografo. omonimo. onomastico. orefice. orfano. organo. origano. origine. ospite. ossido. osteopata. pacifico. paesaggio. paleocapa. paragrafo. paralisi. parentesi. pellicola. penisola. pentola. perdita. pericolo. periferico. perimetro. periodo. petalo. piacevole. pillola. pirofila. pisside. politico. polittico. polizza. pollice. polvere. popolo. possibile. prezzemolo. principe. probabile. proposito. protesi. pubblico. quaresima. quindicesimo. rabarbaro. rafano. ragionevole. reciproco. redine. retina. ricarica. ricciolo. ridicolo. romanico. rondine. salsedine. sandalo. scientifica. sdrucciola. sdrucciolevole. sedano. segale. semplice. senape. sesamo. sillaba. sillabico. simbolo. simpatico. sindaco. sinonimo. sinonimico. sintesi. sintomo. solito. spettacolo. specifico. speleologico. speleologo. statua. stimolo. stomaco. stupidaggine. subito. suddito. superfluo. superstite. svizzera. tavola. telefono. tendine. teorico. termine. termometro. terzultimo. tessera. tirannico. tonico. toponimo. trascurabile. triangolo. trifora. unico. utile. vedova. veicolo. vendesi. ventesimo. verifica. vertigine. vescovo. vittima. vocabolo. vocalico. volatile. vongola. zenzero. zigomo. zingaro. zucchero.

Some guidelines for third-from-last stressed words appear in the two links mentioned above as well as in Grammatica italiana di base by Trifone and Palermo and published by Zanichelli. (This reference is one of my favorites for delving into grammar. It's written in Italian, so reading it is also a good language work-out.) The guidelines are:

  • Nouns with suffixes -agine, -aggine, -igine, -iggine, -edine, -udine
  • Adjectives and nouns with suffixes -abile, -evole, -ibile, -ico, -aceo, -ognolo, -oide
  • Scholarly words with Greek-originating suffixes -cefalo, -crate, -dromo, -fago, -filo, -fobo, -fono, -gamo, -geno, -gono, -grafo, -logo, -mane, -metro, -nomo, -stato, -tesi, -ttero
  • Scholarly words with Latin-originating suffixes -fero, -fugo, -voro

Note that the words in my list above are nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. Adding in verbs and their conjugations is another level of complexity we don't cover here. For example, the verb pagare "to pay" has third person plural conjugation of PA-ga-no, with third-from-last syllable stressed.

Also, there can be homographs of the third-from-last words, that is, words that are written the same but have a different meaning and a different stressed syllable. For example, homographs from the Zanichelli reference are:

  • am-BI-to - the past participle of the verb ambire (compare to AM-bi-to)
  • an-CO-ra - the adverb meaning "again" or "still" (compare to AN-co-ra)
  • be-ne-FI-ci - plural of beneficio (compare to be-NE-fi-ci, plural of benefico)
  • com-PI-to - educated (compare to COM-pi-to)
  • net-TA-re - to clean (compare to NET-ta-re)
  • noc-CIO-lo - hazelnut tree (compare to NOC-cio-lo)
  • prin-CI-pi - plural principio (compare to PRIN-ci-pi, plural of principe)
  • re-TI-na - a small net (compare to RE-ti-na)
  • su-BI-to - the past participle of the verb subire)
  • ten-DI-ne - small tents (compare to TEN-di-ne)

I'll close this post with a couple of homographs that in many ways started my obsession with tonic stress in Italian words. The list below show how aware you must be when pronouncing words in Italian. Just a slight change (at least to my ears) in what syllable you stress changes everything.
  • LEG-ge-re - the verb "to read" in its infinitive form
  • leg-GE-re - an adjective meaning light, without much weight as in stoffe leggere
  • leg-GE-ro - same adjective in its singular, masculine form as in  odore leggero
  • leg-ge-RO - reading in the future as in "I will read"

Saturday, April 29, 2017

Hike: Cattedrale Vegetale to Capanna 2000

Hiking route from Cattedrale Vegetale to Capanna 2000.Descending from Capanna 2000 in snow and Cima Menna in the background.
Left: Hiking route from Cattedrale Vegetale to Capanna 2000. Right: Descending from Capanna 2000 in snow and Cima Menna in the background. 


Length: 8 km
Duration: 3:50 hh:mm
Elevation: Lowest point parking just above Plassa @ 1200 m (3739 ft), highest point Rifugio Capanna @ 1969 m (6460 ft)
Location: Italy, Lombardy, Bergamo, Val Brembana, Alpe Arera

Getting There

A car is really the easiest to get to this hike; we went with our friends who have a car. Blanche Dubois said “Whoever you are, I have always depended on the kindness of strangers.”

We researched buses and it looks like it is possible to get from Bergamo to Zambla Alta, but choices are limited. From Zambla Alta you’d have to walk a fair bit up the main road to get to the Cattedrale Vegetale.

The Walk

I've wanted to see the Cattedrale Vegetale ever since I heard about it a year ago. Some hike-minded friends decided to take us to see it (maybe to shut me up) and then continue on to Capanna 2000 for lunch. As it had just snowed a few days earlier (a bit late in the season), we were looking forward to time in the snow and we weren’t disappointed.

Along the way, we stopped for espresso at the Rifugio Ca' d'Arera S.A.B.A or Società Alpinistica Bergamo Alta. As the crow flies, Bergama Alta is only 25 km (16 miles) away, though driving there is about 45 km (28 miles) following the contours of the Val Seriana and Val di Riso. Passing over the Colle di Zambla takes you from Val Seriana to Val Brembana.

Capanna 2000 is at 1969 m, a few meters shy of 2000 m. Capanna translates as shack or cabin, but it’s a nice rifugio to grab a bite to eat. And eat too much we did, but it was good.

The Cattedrale Vegetale is a “land art” or “natural art” project by Giuliano Mauri (1938 – 2009). It consists of 5 naves and 42 columns arranged as you might expect in a cathedral, except this cathedral is open to the world and each column is hollow and made of a mesh of intertwined wood poles and branches. A beech tree is growing in the center of each column. The idea is that after 20 years, the (dead) wooden structure of the columns decays and gives way to the live tree that has grown up to fill in the column. Nature taking over, but keeping the form that man created. Despite some of the problems such as dead or slow growing trees (as reported here in Italian), the idea is cool and we like it. Our hiking mates (locals) thought it was frivolous. There are two other cathedrals by Mauri: one in Lodi and one in Malga Costa.

From the Cattedrale Vegetale to Capanna 2000 was pretty straightforward. You are still on road for a while, which was a little annoying. We were told that the paving was a relatively recent addition. Even after Rifugio Ca' d'Arera S.A.B.A, there are parts of the trail that are paved. The more interesting hiking starts after Capanna 2000 to the top of Arera, but that wasn’t on our radar today.

While walking up to Capanna 2000, we came across old mines and heaps of rocks dug out of the earth. Zinc was extracted in the area between Gorno and Oltre il Colle until it was decided in 1982 to import the mineral instead. The abandoned mines – 250 km worth of tunnels – are now being investigated and expanded by the Australian firm, Energia Minerals, for zinc, lead, and silver. It is predicted that the three largest zinc extraction sites in the world will soon be exhausted and this area in Bergamo will become a gold mine.


Here are a few of the plants we saw today. For more information about identifying plants, see Resources for Identifying Plants around Bergamo.

[Family] Genus species – {Common names in English; Italian}

[Asteracease] Petasites hybridus – {Butterbur, Pestilence Wort; Farfaraccio maggiore}
[Boraginaceae] Pulmonaria sp. – { Lungwort; Polmaria}
[Brassicaceae] Cardamine bulbifera – {Coralroot Bittercress; Dentaria minore con bulbilli ascellari}
[Ericaceae] Erica carnea – {Winter Heath; Erica carnicina}
[Fabaceae] Hippocrepis comosa – {Horseshoe Vetch; Sferracavallo commune}
[Gentianaceae] Gentiana clusii – {Clusius’ Gentian; Genziana di Clusius}
[Gentianaceae] Gentiana verna – {Spring Gentian; Genziana primaverile, genzianella di primavera}
[Liliaceae] Scilla bifolia – {Alpine Squill; Scilla silvestre}
[Ranunculaceae] Anemone nemorosa – {European Wood Anemone; Anemone del boschi}
[Pinaceae] Pinus mugo – {Creeping pine, mountain pine; Pino mugo}
[Ranunculaceae] Helleborus viridis – {Green Hellebore; Elleboro verde}
[Rosaceae] Potentilla sp. – {Cinquefoil}
[Caprifoliaceae] Valeriana sp.

Photo of the column structures of the Cattedrale Vegetale (Oltre Il Cole).
Two photos of the column structures of the Cattedrale Vegetale (Oltre Il Cole).

Cattedrale Vegetale (Oltre Il Cole) with Zambla Bassa in the background.View of Cattedrale Vegetale (Oltre Il Cole) with Monte Alben in background.
Left: Cattedrale Vegetale (Oltre Il Cole) with Zambla Bassa in the background. Right: View of Cattedrale Vegetale (Oltre Il Cole) with Monte Alben in background.

Erica carnea and Gentiana.Erica carnea.Erica carnea and rock pile from mining, Grem in the background.
Shots of the pasture below Capanna 2000. Erica carnea and Gentiana and rock pile from mining operations.

Photo of [Gentianaceae] Gentiana clusii.Photo of [Gentianaceae] Gentiana clusii.
Two photos of [Gentianaceae] Gentiana clusii – {Clusius’ Gentian; Genziana di Clusius} below Capanna 2000.

Photo of [Gentianaceae] Gentiana verna.Photo of [Gentianaceae] Gentiana verna.
Two photos of [Gentianaceae] Gentiana verna – {Spring Gentian; Genziana primaverile, genzianella di primavera} below Capanna 2000.

[Fabaceae] Hippocrepis comosa.[Asteracease] Petasites hybridus.[Pinaceae] Pinus mugo.
Left: [Fabaceae] Hippocrepis comosa – {Horseshoe Vetch; Sferracavallo commune}. Center: [Asteracease] Petasites hybridus – {Butterbur, Pestilence Wort; Farfaraccio maggiore}. Right: [Pinaceae] Pinus mugo – {Creeping pine, mountain pine; Pino mugo}.

[Brassicaceae] Cardamine bulbifera. [Rosaceae] Potentilla sp.
Plants seen in area below Capanna 2000. Left: [Brassicaceae] Cardamine bulbifera. Right: [Rosaceae] Potentilla sp.

[Boraginaceae] Pulmonaria sp.[Caprifoliaceae] Valeriana sp.
Plants seen in area below Capanna 2000. Left: [Boraginaceae] Pulmonaria sp. Right: [Caprifoliaceae] Valeriana sp.

Food at Capanna 2000. Left: Pizzoccheri. Center left: Stinco di maiale. Center right: Strudel di mele. Right: Amaro Bràulio.

View from below Capanna 2000 to Grem.View up to Arera.View south to Monte Alben.
Views along the hike. Left: Grem. Center: Arera. Right: Monte Alben.

Sign board talking about "Il sentiero dei fiori" - flower walk.Sign board talking about "Il sentiero dei fiori" - flower walk.
Two sign boards talking about "Il sentiero dei fiori" - flower walk.